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tv   Global 3000  PBS  February 3, 2018 12:30am-1:01am PST

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>> this week, "global 3000" heads to mexico, where customary automobiles are being transformed into vehicles of the future. will that improve life for the smog-ridden city's 9 million residents? a basic income trial in finland is being followed with great interest around the world. how's it going? but first, we head to the central african republic, a land in ruins and rarely heard about. our reporter brings us up to date. from the late 19th century until 1960, the central african republic was a french colony. then it declared independence. but instead of a democratic
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government being installed, the country was run by a series of corrupt politicians and autocrats, including the notorious emperor bokassa i. since then, there have been a series of military putsches. the last coup was in 2013. for decades, numerous warlords and rebel groups -- among them christians and muslims -- have fought over the country's commodities, fertile meadowlands, gold, and diamonds. thousands of people have been killed, while others have fled to neighbouring countries like chad, cameroon, and the democratic republic of congo. according to the un's refugee agency, around 545,500 people have left. and even more, 600,000 people have been internally displaced. >> from the air, kaga bandoro in the northern part of the central
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african republic looks pretty peaceful. but what we're seeing is actually a refugee camp housing around 30,000 people, some of them from the city itself. half of those in the camp are children. many have been badly traumatized. like lucie vlachou. she's 12, from a village about 90 kilometers away. lucie was forced to flee when her home was attacked by rebels. >> i have no family. i live with other people from my village. >> a teacher from the village tells us that her mother was taken by the rebels. lucie hasn't heard from her since. everyone else in her family is dead. stories like lucie's are not uncommon.
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>> one morning they came to our village. they had really big guns, and started shooting at everything in sight. they even killed children. i ran away with my family and came to this camp. >> after school, we accompany achille back to his new home in the refugee camp. only his grandfather is there to greet him. >> it's very hard to survive here. there's not much aid, and we no longer have fields to plant things to eat. only god can help us. >> the camp went up a year ago, practically overnight, after an armed group attacked the christian district of the city. seeking protection, the people there fled to un troops stationed nearby. kaga bandoro is a divided city. the small river that flows through its geographic center serves as the border.
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the center in the northern districts is in the hands of a muslim rebel militia called séleka. the southern districts are occupied by their largely christian opponents, known as the anti-balaka. many houses are deserted here. next to that are the un barracks. the kaga bandoro refugee camp grew up next to its protective fence. the blue helmets took up positions on the city's only bridge in an attempt to keep the two warring sides apart. but the raids continue. there are around 12,500 un soldiers in the country. only a few residents have dared to return to their homes. florentin dambéti lives in a hut built amidst the wreckage of his former farm, which was destroyed by the séleka. >> i can't sleep here anymore. a woman was robbed here yesterday. someone robbed her of 25,000 francs. i spoke with the authorities about the security situation here.
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it's not safe in this part of the city. >> donaig de lu has worked for unicef in the central african republic for years. the kaga bandoro camp is just one of many in the country, she says, and things are getting worse. >> the humanitarian needs are increasing. sadly, more and more people are under attack. we have 600,000 people who are internally displaced within the country, which what it was at the peak of the crisis in 2014, so there is still a lot to do. >> among the refugees, tens of thousands of children who were taken up by armed groups. the un is trying to liberate as many as possible from the warlords and rebels, but many struggle to reintegrate in society. many of the girls were kept for years as sex slaves. >> i was 12 and lived in bangui. an armed group forced me to go
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with them. since then, i've lived around here. i'm 17 now. it was terrible. i saw and i did the most awful things. the life that i had all of those years was no life at all. >> there's no safe haven for children in this environment of violence. at least there's a playground in the camp. but the legacy of war is unmistakable even here. sometimes achille spends time with other children in the camp in the afternoon. but nothing is like it used to be. >> i had a good life in my village. i had lots of friends. we had a lot of fun together. we had school lessons under the big tree. in the evenings, we sang and
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danced in the moonlight. but that's all gone. many of my friends are dead, and the others are in refugee camps. >> lucie and achille share a similar fate, and they face a highly uncertain future. and as it stands now, a peaceful solution between the warring parties seems unlikely. >> the central african republic has a population of just 5 million, but a total area almost twice the size of germany. which should make it an ideal place for wild animals to thrive. from kaga bandoro, our reporter jürgen schneider travelled further south to the dzanga-sangha special reserve. there, he met activists who are doing all they can to keep the native wildlife from being wiped out.
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>> it's relatively tranquil in the rain forest in the south of the central african republic. that hasn't always been the case. but the war has shifted to other regions now. gorilla expert terence fuh was one of the few people who remained in dzanga-sangha after the area was overrun in 2013. >> when the rebels got here, they looted the project site. there were some poachers that came from sudan and succeeded to come here. they went to sangha bay, the forest clearing, and killed a lot of elephants, and as a result, this place was almost inhabitable. >> the unique wildlife in dzanga-sangha is still thriving thanks in part to generous financial support, particularly from germany. some 2000 gorillas still live in the park, for the most part
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undisturbed. >> this is a lot of income for the population. we have a staff of 60 people. in a small village like this, employing 60 people is not an easy task. it's like feeding 120 different families. so we think that the people really benefit from it. >> more than 1200 wild elephants also live in dzanga-sangha. in the middle of the rain forest is a clearing. the animals are attracted to the mineral salts in the soil. for the past year, luis arranz has been working here for the world wildlife fund for nature. he's had many years of experience dealing with nature conservation in crisis regions. elephants are a favorite target
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for poachers. the animals in the clearing are restless. >> we can't do a lot. i mean, we have rangers. we are trying to stop the poachers. but if the traffic of ivory doesn't stop, we are going to lose all the elephants. >> last year, 21 elephants were killed by poachers. that's not many compared to other countries in africa. confiscated weapons and tusks are put in authorized storage. >> this is one of the biggest we have. it is near 17 kilograms each. so a lot of money for the poachers. >> arranz has spent 37 years working as a conservationist in africa, and during that time, he's observed how elephants are gradually disappearing from the continent. >> the last elephants in central africa is here where we are.
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the rest of the country is empty. the poachers have finished with all of them, and we know that in the future they will come here and they will try to kill our elephants. so we have to be ready to defend us from them. >> even though rangers patrol the park, they don't have enough weapons and ammunition to ward off the professional poachers. the situation is similar in the rest of africa. >> there are dying a lot of people, and that is the problem that people buying ivory, they think only the elephants are dying, but there are a lot of people dying, poachers and rangers, for that. >> during previous posts in chad and northern congo, arranz lost nearly 40 employees in the battle against poachers. >> it's a pity. we are going to destroy africa and we are doing nothing. i think that we are in a war and
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we are losing that war, and nobody wants to recognize that we are losing that war. if we don't do nothing in the next 5, 10 years, everything will be finished. >> there are still many wild elephants in the sangha clearing. >> we have always the problems with the guns and ammunition. everybody says, "no, how do you want to use guns and ammunition to protect the elephants?" i don't want guns to protect the elephants. i want guns to protect the people that protect the elephants. that is different. because the poachers come with guns. and when our rangers have no guns, they are going to die. >> today, the locals are celebrating the opening of a small center for handicrafts. luis arranz has come to watch the dancing and share the villagers' hopes for the future of the dzangha-sangha region.
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>> my name is arnol aarón purizaca musayón. i'm 14 years old. in zorritos, in the north of peru. i love surfing and also playing the guitar. i'm like a water rat. i'm really interested in marine life. we are three brothers. i'm the oldest.
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my father works in marine biodiversity conservation, and my mother is a homemaker. sharing life with my family and my parents, going to school, and surfing. when i'm out riding a big wave and go under, i sometimes think i'll never find my way out. that's really scary. terrorism, hitmen, all the violence, robberies, and murders.
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i'd like to become a doctor or a primary school teacher. i want to teach children and save lives. yes, i think so, because my grandparents told me that when they went to school, it was very strict, and the teachers could beat them. and they told me their parents didn't have enough money to take really good care of them. >> an unconditional basic income has become a hot topic around the world. its premise is simple -- every person, regardless of their employment status, should
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receive a basic and unconditional wage from the state. and there are already examples. citizens of alaska receive annual payouts from a fund financed by the oil industry. and the government of ontario in canada is planning its own basic income pilot study. in finland, such a trial has been up and running for a year. >> the sound of the drum has to be adjusted a little before it's completely finished. juha jährvinen knows that from experience. juha hand-carves made-to-order shaman drums one at a time. >> right now i'm trying to make as many drums as possible to earn as much money as i can. but handmade goods always take more time. it's not mass production, so as a business it isn't very lucrative. >> juha is grateful that he's now allowed to keep the 700 euros he charges for each instrument.
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in the past, his additional earnings were deducted from his unemployment benefits. juha is one of 2000 unemployed finns receiving a universal basic income of 560 euros without restrictions. besides making drums, the artist says he can now also devote more time to his children and housekeeping. >> i don't have to deal with all that stress anymore. before, when i was receiving unemployment benefits, i had to register regularly at the job center to prove that i was actively looking for work. it was quite a burden. >> in the northern finnish city of oulu, jarkko kahunen also receives a basic income. he's been out of work for four years after his company shut its offices here. the computer scientist eventually realized that he was too old for young start-ups, and too long out of the business to be offered a programming position. now he wants to be
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self-employed. the basic income provides him with a safety net. >> back when i worked in the i.t. sector, salaries were quite good. i know being self-employed comes with risks. but i've wanted to be my own boss for a long time, and now i have the opportunity. >> he's chosen a new career path -- selling luxury chocolate is his business idea. jarkko offers his exclusive products to specialty shops in oulu's shopping malls. he even imports some of them from germany. online, he's set up an internet shop to increase sales in his small business. >> if you only want to sit at home on your sofa, the basic income allows you to continue to be lazy and stop looking for a
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job. but for people like me who want to work, it's very motivating. >> jarkko has given himself a year to make his chocolate business profitable. one thing is clear to him. in finland, you can't make ends meet with the basic income alone. the finnish government isn't ready to release an interim assessment of the pilot program. officials want to wait until the trial wraps up at the end of 2018 to say how the 2000 test recipients used the basic income. it could play an important role in future societies if there are radical changes in the working world. >> it's unclear how the job market will develop in the future. it's possible that automation could mean there aren't enough jobs for everyone, and then we'll have to consider how to overhaul our social security system.
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>> juha jährvinen still has big plans. and since he began receiving the unconditional basic income, his creative drive has blossomed. together with some friends, he wants to buy this vacant cultural center. they want to call the project "art bnb." juha wants artists to move in and work at the center. he's passionate about his idea, but he and his friends don't have the money to turn it into reality yet. still, he remains optimistic. >> innovations drive the whole world to develop. there should be as many of them possible. you have to have a hundred wild ideas. in the end, two remain that work, and they move us forward. >> juha jährvinen thinks the basic income is a real innovation. and he believes it would be a shame to get rid of it after the two-year trial.
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>> there are around 1.3 billion cars and trucks on our planet. but only around 2 million of them have an electric motor. there are still too few charging stations in operation. plus, the cost of the vehicles is too high for many. nonetheless, the number of electric vehicles is forecast to hit 40 million by 2025. not soon enough for some of the more green-minded citizens of mexico. >> it's clear weather, but a blanket of smog lies over mexico city. 5 million cars travel through the vast urban center every day. even though the bad air is palpable, it seems no one here wants to give up driving. >> so many cars -- too bad they pollute so much. >> and why don't you have an electric car?
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>> my husband really wants to buy one. hopefully we can get one soon. >> there's not enough choice. >> they're too expensive. >> there are too few charging stations. >> but where there's a will, there's a way. hector ruiz has packed 14 batteries under the hood of his converted electric vw beetle. we're taking it out for a spin. the car's quiet hum is quickly drowned out as we dive into rush hour in the mexican capital and are engulfed in exhaust fumes. >> i even had to go to a specialist because i developed an asthma problem, because i've been living in such a poisonous city for 15 years. >> who needs an expensive new car that'll go 200 kilometers an hour if you spend most of your time stuck in traffic? ruiz had his car converted to meet his true needs. >> so what kind of a range does your car have?
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>> 50 kilometers. >> 50 kilometers? that's nothing. it's really not worth it, is it? >> it is worth it. i never drive more than 25 or 30 kilometers a day. >> if he had stronger batteries, the electric beetle could go much further, but ruiz doesn't care. he paid 4,500 euros for his electric drive to this man, alvaró de la paz. the mechanic converts cars with diesel or gasoline engines into electric vehicles. a mini like this one requires a lot more battery power than the bug. de la paz is self-taught. >> looks like all the others. i'm pretty proud of it. >> de la paz says that converting conventional cars is quick, saves resources, and costs just a fraction of what a new electric car would cost. >> it's to our advantage if we use what's already been made and turn it into something that can still be used, but without the
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negative side effects. >> if the state were to subsidize not just the price of new e-cars but also conversions, he says everyone could have an electric vehicle for as little as 3,000 euros. and de la paz hasn't needed a big lab or testing grounds to make it work. >> here we write down everything we've planned and learned so we don't forget. like how to build the batteries, how the mechanisms work, how we set them up. it may look chaotic, but it's what's going on in our heads. >> the 58-year-old has been experimenting for around a decade. his dream? making it possible for nearly any driver to convert a car, rather than leaving electromobility to the lucky few who can afford to buy an expensive new model. this driver was initially a customer that has turned into a
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partner. those who really want to protect the environment don't have to wait for the car industry to finally come through. >> people have been talking about electric cars since the 1980s. we've been waiting for decades. and then carmakers only come out with really expensive cars. i decided not to wait, and had mine converted instead. >> that's all for today. but don't forget to drop us a line with your comments. write to us at or on facebook -- "dw global society." bye for now. take care. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit]
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steves: we're in rothenburg, germany's ultimate walled city. in the middle ages, when frankfurt and munich were just wide spots on the road, rothenburg was one of germany's largest cities, with a whopping population of 6,000.
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today, even with its crowds and overpriced souvenirs, i love this place. during rothenburg's heyday -- that was about 1200 to 1400 -- it was the intersection of two great trading routes -- prague to paris and hamburg to venice. but today, the great trade is tourism. rothenburg is a huge hit with shoppers. true, this is a great place to buy cuckoo clocks, steins, and dirndls, but see the town first. most of the buildings were built by 1400. like many medieval towns, the finest and biggest houses were built along herrengasse, named for the herren, or the wealthy class. the commoners built higgledy-piggledy farther from the center, near the walls. hanging shop signs advertise what they sold -- knives, armor, bread, whatever. rothenburg's wall,
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with its beefy fortifications and intimidating gates, is about a mile around and provides great views and a good orientation. rodertor is the only tower you can actually climb. it's worth the hike for the commanding city view and the fascinating display on the bombing of rothenburg in the last weeks of world war ii, when much of the city was destroyed. but rothenburg's most devastating days were 400 years ago, during the thirty years' war. in the 1600s, the catholic and protestant armies were fighting all across europe. the catholic army took the protestant town of rothenburg, and as was customary, they planned to execute the town leaders and pillage and plunder the place. but the catholic general had an idea. he said, "hey, if someone in this town can drink "a three-liter tankard filled with wine in one gulp, i'll spare the city." according to legend, rothenburg's retired mayor nusch said, "i can do that." mayor nusch drank the whole thing, the town was saved, and the mayor slept for three days.
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and today, tourists gather on the town square several times daily for a less-than-thrilling reenactment of that legendary chug. nice story, but in actuality, the town was occupied and ransacked several times during that 30 years of war, and when peace finally came, rothenburg was never again a major player. it slumbered peacefully until rediscovered in the 19th century by those same romantics who put the rhine on the grand tour map. they came here to paint and write about the best-preserved medieval town in germany. shops are filled with etchings and prints inspired by this 19th century romantic take on the town.
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[female voice over]: this program is made possible in part by the town of marion, home of the wayne henderson school of appalachian arts, celebrating 21 years as a certified virginia main street community. the historic general francis marion hotel and the speakeasy restaurant and lounge, providing accommodations and casual fine dining in downtown marion, virginia. the bank of marion. technology powered, service driven. wbrf 98.1 fm. bryant label, a proud supporter of our region's musical heritage. ("cherokee shuffle" by gerald anderson) ♪


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